By Valeri P. Frolov, Andrei Zelnikov

This e-book is set black holes, the most interesting items of contemporary Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. for a few years, black holes were regarded as attention-grabbing options of the idea of normal Relativity with a couple of a laugh mathematical houses. Now after the invention of astrophysical black holes, the Einstein gravity has develop into a major device for his or her research. This self-contained textbook combines actual, mathematical, and astrophysical facets of black gap conception. Pedagogically awarded, it includes 'standard' fabric on black holes in addition to really new matters comparable to the position of hidden symmetries in black gap physics, and black holes in spacetimes with huge additional dimensions. The e-book will entice scholars and younger scientists attracted to the idea of black holes.

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**Extra resources for Introduction to Black Hole Physics**

**Sample text**

This process requires a mechanism that transfers the initial large angular momentum outwards. There exists a gap in the observed mass spectrum of black holes. At the moment there are no certain conﬁrmations of the intermediate-mass black hole existence in the range between around 50M (possible largest mass of stellar black holes) and up to 104 M . Black holes have one dimensional parameter, their mass M, that uniquely determines the scale. Since the mass of a supermassive black hole is 106 –1010 M , its gravitational radius is ∼ 105 –109 times bigger than the gravitational radius of a stellar mass black hole (with mass ∼ 10M ).

We have considered the gravitational equilibrium of a quantum system. This explains why the constants G and h¯ appear in the formula. The limiting mass exists because of the softening of the equation of state, which occurs when the fermions become relativistic. This is why the speed of light c enters the expression for the limiting mass of the gravitating Fermi gas system. 4: There is strong evidence that the neutrinos have non-zero mass. 01 eV. What are the corresponding critical mass M∗ and the size R∗ of a ‘neutrino star’ that is made of such Fermi particles?

Black hole models are often used to explain phenomena where huge energy is emitted by a small-size compact object. Quite often it is difﬁcult (or practically impossible) to explain observations without attracting such models. Let us brieﬂy discuss the modern status of black holes. The main parameter that determines black hole properties is its mass M. In principle, black holes can have a wide spectrum of masses. Black holes are usually classiﬁed as follows: • stellar-mass black holes with M ∼ 3 − 30M ; • (super)massive black holes with M ∼ 105 − 109 M ; Black Holes in Astrophysics and Cosmology 27 • intermediate-mass black holes with M ∼ 103 M ; • primordial black holes with mass up to M ; • micro-black holes.