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By Bancroft W.D., Barnett C.E.

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Both an acid and a base must be present in a proton-transfer reaction, because an acid cannot donate a proton unless a base is present to accept it. Acid–base reactions are often called proton-transfer reactions. When a compound loses a proton, the resulting species is called its conjugate base. Thus, Cl- is the conjugate base of HCl, and H 2O is the conjugate base of H 3O +. When a compound accepts a proton, the resulting species is called its conjugate acid. Thus, HCl is the conjugate acid of Cl-, and H 3O + is the conjugate acid of H 2O.

53 * 10-6 in water. What is its Keq ? 5 M) The importance of organic acids and bases will become clear when we discuss how and why organic compounds react. The most common organic acids are carboxylic acids—compounds that have a COOH group. Acetic acid and formic acid are examples of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids have pKa values ranging from about 3 to 5. ) The pKa values of a wide variety of organic compounds are given in Appendix II. 75 Alcohols—compounds that have an OH group—are much weaker organic acids, with pKa values close to 16.

10 Bonding in the Methyl Cation, the Methyl Radical, and the Methyl Anion Not all carbon atoms form four bonds. A carbon with a positive charge, a negative charge, or an unpaired electron forms only three bonds. Now we will see what orbitals carbon uses when it forms three bonds. The Methyl Cation (؉CH3) The positively charged carbon in the methyl cation is bonded to three atoms, so it hybridizes three orbitals—an s orbital and two p orbitals. Therefore, it forms its three covalent bonds using sp 2 orbitals.

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